Even in cases in which repairs or maintenance do not involve these springs directly, they often include mechanisms connected to them. Attempting to make these repairs without the proper knowledge can result in serious bodily injury and/or death as well as garage door and structural damage. Inexperienced individuals should consult a garage door specialist in these matters.
Read more about garage door springs repair/ replacement
There are two standard types of garage door springs:
- Torsion springs
- Extension springs.
Torsion springs are located above the garage door and are anchored to a metal shaft. In some cases, the shaft houses the springs while in others it passes directly through the middle of the shaft. In the latter case, the spring is either mounted to the end of the shaft or middle of it.
Torsion springs apply torque to a shaft, which has drums on each end, to balance the garage door. Each drum has a cable affixed to it. The cable extends and secures on the bottom of the fixture on the bottom of the door. Torsion springs wind and unwind as the garage door is raised and lowered which to create balance.
The inner diameter and length as well as the size of the wire are all properties of torsions springs which determine its life cycle and the lift. The lift is governed by the torque of the spring and defines the amount of weight which the spring is capable of lifting. The life cycle is the number of times the garage door may be raised and lowered before it malfunctions.
Extensions springs are most commonly mounted to along either side of the garage door or, in some cases, over horizontal tracks. These springs contract and extend in order to counterbalance the garage door weight as it raises and lowers. Generally there is only one spring on each side of residential garage doors.
Commercial garage doors, as well as certain residential doors, commonly have multiple springs mounted on each side. Either clipped ends, closed loops, or open loops are used to anchor this spring to the garage door pulley; track hang; frame; pivot pin; or tension adjusting bolt.
There are five different torsion spring model designs which include Torquemaster; EZ-Set; Steel Rolling Door; One-Piece Curtain; and Standard Commercial or Standard Residential torsion springs. The two extension spring design models are One-Piece and Sectional extension springs.
- TorqueMaster torsion springs are used singly or in sets of two and are believed to be one of the safest models.
- Residential garage doors are either installed with one EZ-Set torsion spring or a set of two. These resemble standard torsion springs in appearance, but the hardware is very different.
- Steel Rolling Door torsion springs function much the same as other styles of torsion springs and are installed singly or in combinations of two or more depending on the weight of the garage door.
- One-Piece curtain door torsion springs are most commonly used for self-storage units and function much the same as rolling steel doors. These doors are often referred to as self-storage or mini-warehouse doors.
- Most industrial garage doors have two or more Standard Commercial torsion springs. This type of door generally have about four, sometimes more, torsion springs. They installed with either a triplex; duplex; mixed; or liner setup.
- Standard Residential torsion springs are the most common type used in home garages. One torsion spring is usually installed for lighter garage doors, while two are used for heavier models.
- One-Piece Garage Door extension springs are much like sectional overhead garage door extension springs. The most obvious difference is the One-Piece extension spring is not quite as long.
- Within the United States, Sectional Garage Door extension springs are the most popular style used.